Quick Managed Service Account Audit

First get the list of gMSAs from AD:

$gMSAlist = Get-ADServiceAccount -filter {samAccountName -like "*"}

Second Determine the systems allowed to use them:

ForEach ($gMSA in $gMSAlist) {(Get-ADServiceAccount $gMSA -properties *).PrincipalsAllowedToRetrieveManagedPassword}

Yay, we know who can use these accounts… but ARE they currently using it. If this returns a Group, look to see the systems in this group, else just access the system in question.

Third, verify the account is in use by listing all the services on the system and the accounts used to run them:

Get-Service | Select -ExpandProperty Name | ForEach{(Get-WmiObject Win32_Service -Filter "Name='$_'") | Select Name, StartName}

The above command simply lists out all the services and the account they run under, it’s not optimal as it is slow, but it gets it all, and if you need a more readable version pipe it into Output-CSV, or apply a more granular filter on the result for the gMSAs in question.

That’s about it, if you don’t see the gMSA listed on any service on the target machine, it’s rather safe to assume that the gMSA is not in use and can be safely removed from AD.

Remove-ADServiceAccount gMSAToBeRemoved

Setting Network Profile from Public to Domain on Core

Get Network interfaces profile

Get-NetConnectionProfile

sometimes when you recover a VM from backup it likes to change to Public even though all the other network settings were recovered successfully.

NLA Reset via Disable/Enable NIC

first thing to try is simply disable and re-enable the NIC once connection to a DC is verified.

Get-NetAdapter | Disable-NetAdapter
Get-NetAdapter | Enable-NetAdapter

All else fails, Set the DNS Suffix

If the NLA still refuses to show Domain status, try setting the DNS suffix…

Get-NetAdapter Ethernet | Set-DNSClient -ConnectionSpecificSuffix "Zewwy.ca" -UseSuffixWhenRegistering $true

Then, again disable, enable the interface.

It should go back to DomainAuthenticated. If not verify the computer is still actually authenticated with a DC with nltest.

Hope this helps someone.

Working on PowerShell scripts (ISE) w/ GitHub

GitHub

So as you all probably know GitHub has been acquired by Microsoft. I had initially groaned at this acquisition as usually a lot of things Microsoft has done lately has really bothered me (locking down APIs to O365 and not providing them to on Prem, for example) but then they also have done some good moves… .Net Core 2.0 and all the open source incentives are a nice change of pace.

And to top that with some sugar how about some private Repositories for free members! Yeah That’s right, now that this is an option I’m going to use GitHub more. Now I’ve played with it before, however this time I wanted to write this up for my own memories. Hopefully it helps someone out there too.

Let’s have some fun saving our PowerShell scripts on GitHub!

PowerShell ISE and GIT

Dependencies

So for this demo you’ll need:

1) A GitHub Account (Free)
2) PowerShell ISE (Free with Windows)
3) Git for Windows

First, install and configure Git for Windows. Mike previously covered this topic in another blog article. In this scenario, I ran the Git installer elevated so I could install it in the program files folder and I took the option to add the path for Git to the system environment variable path:

posh-git0a

Make sure that you’ve configured Git as the user who is running PowerShell (I ran these commands from within my elevated PowerShell session):

4) Install the Posh-Git PowerShell module from the PowerShell Gallery:

The Fun Stuff

So I originally follow this guys blog post on how to accomplish this.

Now I had already installed git for windows so I was set there.

SharePoint Profiles

I liked the part where he had altered his console display depending on where he was located to not ensue confusion, however I wasn’t exactly sure what he meant by Profiles a lil searching and education session later I was able to verify my profile path:

$profile

Then simply edit that Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1 with Mikes script:

Set-Location -Path $env:SystemDrive\
Clear-Host
$Error.Clear()
Import-Module -Name posh-git -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if (-not($Error[0])) {
    $DefaultTitle = $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle
    $GitPromptSettings.BeforeText = '('
    $GitPromptSettings.BeforeForegroundColor = [ConsoleColor]::Cyan
    $GitPromptSettings.AfterText = ')'
    $GitPromptSettings.AfterForegroundColor = [ConsoleColor]::Cyan
    function prompt {
        if (-not(Get-GitDirectory)) {
            $Host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle = $DefaultTitle
            "PS $($executionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentLocation)$('>' * ($nestedPromptLevel + 1)) "
        }
        else {
            $realLASTEXITCODE = $LASTEXITCODE
            Write-Host 'PS ' -ForegroundColor Green -NoNewline
            Write-Host "$($executionContext.SessionState.Path.CurrentLocation) " -ForegroundColor Yellow -NoNewline
            Write-VcsStatus
            $LASTEXITCODE = $realLASTEXITCODE
            return "`n$('$' * ($nestedPromptLevel + 1)) "
        }
    }
}
else {
    Write-Warning -Message 'Unable to load the Posh-Git PowerShell Module'
}

Now that we’ll have the same special console to avoid confusion let’s link a directory!

Linking GitHub Repo to Your local Directory

Then I cloned my new private Repo:

git clone https://github.com/Zewwy/Remove-SPFeature Remove-SPFeature -q

That felt awesome…

Nice, nice…

Opening scripts from the ISE

Alright. Well now that we have a repo, and are in it, how do I open a file in the very ISE we are running to edit them? Now Mike didn’t exactly cover this, cause I suppose to him this was already common knowledge… well not to me haha so it’s actually pretty simple once you know how.

psEdit .\Remove-SPFeature.ps1

Woah! Epic, it can be bothersome when dealing with length scripts, so ensure you utilize regions (w/ endregions) to allow for quick named areas to access, as you can use this command in ISE to collapse all regions once a script is loaded.

$psISE.CurrentFile.Editor.ToggleOutliningExpansion()

lets start making some changes *changes made*

Committing and Pushing

Get your mind out of the gutter!

Now I had originally did a git push, and instantly got everything is up-to-date alert, so awesome, I did not have to fight through his whole schpeal about auth (I got a prompt the very first time I attempted to clone my repo, requesting me to login into my GitHub Account). So my tokens were good right from the start after that happened. However I did make some updates to one file and was now instead presented with this after a commit:

Again a bit of searching I was able to find the answer, seem usually to be some form of ignorance, that is why I’m doing this.. to learn 😛

Now again I got a bit confused at how this worked and when I did some searching I discovered:

Don’t do a “git commit -a” from the ISE, it’ll crash asking you for a line to provide in for the description.

Do proper staged commits as described here. 🙂

I hope this maybe gets some more people power shelling!

Next I should learn to use Visual Studio for more app building… but I’m more of a sys admin then a dev…

I recently took a course in resiliency, and they basically said be a tree… ok.

Branching

Whats is branching? well pretty much, try stuff without changing the source code. Backups anyone? it’s a nice way to try stuff without breaking the original code, and once tested, can be merged.

unlike a tree it’s not often a branch just becomes the trunk, but whatever…

Following this guide:

To create a branch locally

You can create a branch locally as long as you have a cloned version of the repo.

From your terminal window, list the branches on your repository.

$ git branch 
* master

This output indicates there is a single branch, the master and the asterisk indicates it is currently active.

Create a new feature branch in the repository

$ git branch <feature_branch>

Switch to the feature branch to work on it.

$ git checkout <feature_branch>

You can list the branches again with the git branch command.

Commit the change to the feature branch:

$ git add . 
$ git commit -m "adding a change from the feature branch"

Results:

Hopefully tomorrow I can cover merging. 🙂

Cheers for now!

Exit, Break, and Return

The Break, The Return, and the Exit are all well break dance moves even the newest of new comers knows about.
Hahaha, Nah I’m just making that shit up. They are however great tools for powershell scripting.
However, do you know what the difference in all of them are, and when best to use them?

For a longer answer and some explainations visit this site. 😀
If not whatever here’s the quick low down so you can save going to that day of class. 😛

1) Break terminates execution of a loop or switch statement and hands over control to next statement after it.
2) Return terminates execution of the current function and passes control to the statement immediately after the function call.
3) Exit terminates the current execution session altogether. It also closes the console window and may or may not close ISE depending on what direction the wind is facing.

Arrays Gone Astray

I love powershell, and as one figures you’ll have to deal with arrays. and when you learn them, they become a handy tool for any dev/scripters toolkit.
This guy covers it well. in short do this

PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit = @("Apple","Banna","Orange")
PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit.Add("Kiwi")
Exception calling "Add" with "1" argument(s): "Collection was of a fixed size."
At line:1 char:1
+ $Fruit.Add("Kiwi")
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo          : NotSpecified: (:) [], MethodInvocationException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : NotSupportedException

PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit = $Fruit + "Kiwi"
PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit
Apple
Banna
Orange
Kiwi
PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit.GetType()

IsPublic IsSerial Name                                     BaseType
-------- -------- ----                                     --------
True     True     Object[]                                 System.Array


PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit = $Fruit - "Kiwi"
Method invocation failed because [System.Object[]] does not contain a method named 'op_Subtraction'.
At line:1 char:1
+ $Fruit = $Fruit - "Kiwi"
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    + CategoryInfo          : InvalidOperation: (op_Subtraction:String) [], RuntimeException
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : MethodNotFound
PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit = $Fruit -ne "Kiwi"
PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit
Apple
Banna
Orange
PS C:\Scripts> $FruitIsFixedSize
PS C:\Scripts> $Fruit.IsFixedSize
True

Center Write-Host Output

Write-Host

It’s great and it’s main purposes is to well write to the host. Nothing more. So often people abuse it and leaving people to rant about it.
E.G. This guy and the “Gurus”
I agree with both of them in terms of displaying data, hands down. However, when it comes to simple informing the admin/user of the script the “it displays and gets rid of that info” is efficient, and interactive (colors).

With that out of the way. I am working on a script to clear web parts from a sharepoint page via powershell.
I always like clean code an usually my scripts are interactive, for other non-interactive scripts I’d stick with Write-Output as described by the scripting guys.
However since I like to display things colorfully and neatly Write-Host is perfect!

The Problem

Turns out there’s no easy way to get-write host to center it’s output, no mater how hard I googled. This reply from James Bernie however kicked off the idea it was possible.
There were actually a decent amount of issues with his propsed idea, when implemented. First we’ll want a static variable of the window size at start of script.
Then it turns out Bernies fancy full integer trick may return whole numbers, but does so as a dang string type. Instead of wasting time dicking around with another method, i simply did this trick of dividing by 1 on the variable.
The final problem with his concept which was driving me nuts for a good while was due to the fact of how padding method actually works.
PadLeft adds spaces to the left of a string.
This is handy for numeric out-put because padding keeps the numbers properlly aligned on the right.
This was exactly the problem I was facing, testing my existing function with a series of dots of different lengths, I found them all to be right aligned, and not centered.
Another issue I found was that the pipe into measure method under an expression based section of code and calling its sub routine of count ($var | measure).count wasn’t returning the correct value.
That line was pretty stupid anyway when you can simply call any variable thats of a string type length method.
And the final nail in the logical coffin, the padding was again aligning more right of center than actual center due to the fact that’s what it was comparing to first in the convert.
So it made more sense to take ((Wdith of screen) – String.Length)/2 + String.Length, this associated with a left and right padding, creates a centered master piece!!
Finally!!Here’s the final thing I had to overcome. My function I wanted to support Write-Host outputs color param.
As it turns out, overloading functions isn’t supported in powershell, but that didn’t stop someone from comming up with a work around!
This guy and his buzz works… Woo Ad-hoc Polymorphism!!! OK OK… here’s my final piece of code for you guys. NOTE I didn’t do fully ad hoc polythingy I cheated and only supprted foreground color via an if else.
If you *burp* want to make it support background and foreground… Uhhhhh.. do it yourself… getting to wasted right now…

#Function to Centralize Write-Host Output, Just take string variable parameter and pads it
#Nerd Level over 9000!!! Ad-hoc Polymorphic power time!!
$pswwidth = (get-host).UI.RawUI.MaxWindowSize.Width
function Centralize()
{
  param(
  [Parameter(Position=0,Mandatory=$true)]
  [string]$S,
  [Parameter(Position=1,Mandatory=$false,ParameterSetName="color")]
  [string]$C
  )
    $sLength = $S.Length
    $padamt =  "{0:N0}" -f (($pswwidth-$sLength)/2)
    $PadNum = $padamt/1 + $sLength #the divide by one is a quick dirty trick to covert string to int
    $CS = $S.PadLeft($PadNum," ").PadRight($PadNum," ") #Pad that shit
    if ($C) #if variable for color exists run below
    {    
        Write-Host $CS -ForegroundColor $C #write that shit to host with color
    }
    else #need this to prevent output twice if color is provided
    {
        $CS #write that shit without color
    }
}

*Update* This code is being managed on GitHub, please download or fork the latest version from there, maybe one day I’ll implement background color.. :S