Palo Alto VPN (GlobalProtect)
Part 2 – Certificates

In my previous post I covered recovering a downed CA, cause it will be needed for this section of the GlobalProtect tutorial.

Adding the Sub CA cert:

Device -> Certs -> Import -> Base64 cer file

Generate a a Sub CA Key for the PA to handle the Gateway certs, afterwards generate a user cert as well for 2FA.

Click generate:

Click Generate

export the CSR, for some reason the latest Chrome causes a constant refresh, argggg had to export the CSR via IE, gross….

Navigate to your CA’s signing Web page (the Sub CA in this case), open the CSR in notepad and paste the results, and select Sub CA for the template:

Then save as Base64 type cert, and import back into the PA firewall, if successful will look like this:

Also import Offline-root-ca cert to complete the chain

Alright time for Certificate Profiles

Add all the Certs

Create a SSL/TLS Profile:

Name it whatever, pick TLS 1.2 as min and max, and select the PA Sub CA we created earlier.

Create User Cert
Create Template on CA

Then under Cert Templates, right click it, and duplicate

5 Years, i don’t like doing this often

Signature and encry, check off include symmetric allowed by subject, min key size of 2048 and key is exportable

Along with the default, check off MS RSA and AES, and RSA SChannel

Subject Name, Supply in the Request, it will complain about the security risk, accept them. (Normally you’d create the certificates at the client machines, but in this case I am doint it the “wrong way” by having a global user certificate)

Click Apply.

If you require additional permissions apply them now, by default domain admins have full control, and domain users have enroll rights.

With the Template configured, lets create the User Cert for the VPN, in this case we generate the CSR on the PA, but since we made the key exportable, we can export the certificate with key to be installed on the end device (instead of the CSR being generated on the device and then signed, and the public key being installed on the portal, which is the right way… hopefully I can get that, but the toughest part is generating certificates on phones, have to learn each devices OS on how to do it)

On the PA Device, Certs, Generate

*NOTE* I noticed that with the latest Chrome that when you attempt to export any certificate it just seems to refresh the page, sadly the only work around I have is to use IE… Ugh….

Open the CSR in Notepad, navigate to your Sub CA’s certificate signing page, sign the certificate.

lol, I was wondering why i couldn’t see my Template in the web interface, so I looked up my own very old blog post (3rd one I believe) and I realized I forgot to publish it, like I did the Authentication Session Template. Durrrr, then it kept complaining about https for cert destro (makes sense) but since I had a core subca, I couldn’t connect to the IIS remotely, then I found this, saved my bacon, and followed this to enable HTTPS, Then finally…

then Import it on to the Firewall,

it should look like this

In the next section I’ll cover configuring the Portal and Gateway settings. 😀

Palo Alto VPN (GlobalProtect)
Part 1 – Authentication

Hey all,

I’d figure I’d spin up a really quick guide on setting up client type VPN using Palo Alto Firewalls. In this case it will use GlobalProtect, so will require appropriate licenses to work. I won’t exactly cover the license aspect in my blog as I find that stuff a bore, and can leave that for the good ol’ VARs to handle. Anyway let’s get into this.

Authentication

Palo Alto firewalls support a wide range of authentication sources (which is awesome) however, to start my lab utilizes LDAP. There are ways to secure LDAP with certs and TLS for LDAPS however again that is beyond the scope of this blog post, and will stick with plaintext LDAP connection son port 389. (In my case all my servers reside on one hypervisor, thus the chances of the vswitch being man in the middle is highly unlikely ;))

Step 1) Add a Server Profile

So to start on the Palo Alto (My Examples utilize PAN OS 7.1.x, however, 5-6, as well as 8 are very similar) Web interface go to Device -> Server Profiles -> LDAP then click add.

Give the Profile a meaningful name, then click on the add button under server list.

Couple Notes here:

1) The Name doesn’t have to be the server name, just give it a meaninful name, or give it the server name, whatever you choose (it’s not a DNS lookup)

2) I was having some issues with testing the Auth profile (Which will be covered a bit further down in the blog post) and I thought I may have had issues with my LDAP settings, however “During LDAP server configuration, the device automatically pulls the Base DN if the connection is successful.

Since I didn’t have LDAPS setup, I had no cert to use, so I had to uncheck “Require SSL/TLS secured connection” only then would the Base DN auto-populate, verifying that my LDAP connection was indeed successful.

Also note in my lab I had a separate NIC dedicated to my domain, which was separate from the usual home network, thus I had to setup a “Service Routes” for LDAP specifically.

I decided to also create a standard domain account and use it for the Bind DN. This may or may not be required.

Now this is where things get a little weird….

According to step 2 from this Palo Alto post you setup the authentication profile.

Step 2) Group Mapping (Optional)

Which is technically the bare minimum, however, I was hoping to have some group filtering at the Auth Profile, in order to do this one has to first setup a “Group Mapping” and followed this to do it:

Device -> User Identification -> Group Mapping

Click Add, Give it a meaningful name, and optionally fill in the domain

Helpful Commands

  • show user group-mapping state all
    Lists all group mappings on the firewall, which shows the Server Profile used and all groups found from it
  • show user group list
    Also lists all groups, but without ordering via the group mapping info
  • show user group name <group name>
    Lists users within the group specified
  • debug user-id refresh group-mapping all
    If new groups or users added to groups in AD, refresh the info on the PA

If you do not setup a group mapping, you can’t filter by groups in the Authentication Profile, under the “allow list” which from testing might not be a bad thing… you’ll see…

Step 3) Create an Authentication Profile

This is where my results get weird, which I finally discovered was all due to the “allow list” filtering in which I was attempting to use. Let me show you what I mean, using my first authentication profile as an example:

So nothing special, select LDAP, selected my LDAP Server Profile, then click the next tab is it is required “Advanced” tab.

Now if you setup a group mapping as I specified under the option step 2, you will see all the groups in the domain (CN=xxxx,OU=xxxx,DC=xxxx) format. If you didn’t you will get only all (and that is probably a good thing, not exactly sure yet,…)

So in my first case I decided to use my “domain users” as my filter group, as it’s pretty common group and I don’t have many users in it.

Simple, so now we have all the basics to now test it.

Step 4) Testing the Authentication Profile

Test and fail and test and fail, and smash your face in for using group mappings…. (yet to be determined why)… but for now, log in via SSH into the Palo Alto firewall and test it:

What the heck?!?! I swear everything was correct, I also knew I was entering my password correctly and everything. No matter how you change the settings in the Auth Profile nothing works (I double and triple checked proper group membership in AD, and ensured the firewall could see it all “show user group” and “show user group name “CN=domain users,OU=users,DC=zewwy,DC=ca””) until I noticed from the link in this steps title that his simple test was using that “all” group that is used when there is no group mapping defined, or just simple at the top of the list.

So creating a new Authentication Profile not specifying my AD group..

and testing…

BAMMMMMMMM….

And that concludes the Authentication part well at least the dependency, in part 2 I’ll cover the certificates requirements. I currently have a ticket open with Palo ALto as to why the “Allow List” section of the Authentication Profile doesn’t pick up the users in which should be in those account as shown by the “show user group name “CN group name”, so if this commands shows users based on a group, the allow list should be able to validate that as well.

Until Part 2, Adios!