VMware Patches May 2024

Yup this shit never ends:

VMSA-2024-0011:VMware ESXi, Workstation, Fusion and vCenter Server updates address multiple security vulnerabilities

Patching vCenter

Login to VAMI, lets see what I’m on:

Here’s the fix Matrix:

Can you tell if I’m good, no cause the Matrix uses a different version coding (7.0 u3q) vs the version shown in VAMI ( You can either look up, by googling the version, which I did and it’s 7.0 u3o), or clicking the link in the KB and checking the build number.

VMware: constructive criticism.. make the Matrix have the same versioning syntax as VAMI so it’s easy to know, and verify.

Anyway, in VAMI click update. there it is….

Accept the EULA, Pass pre-update checks, Installing…

It’s chugging along…

at this point the vCenter regular web interface was unresponsive, and had to use the host that was running the VCSA to get the CPU usage. However, as you can see VAMI appears to be up and showing status just fine.

45 Minutes later…

alright… 1% woo, woo, woo! Why does this seem oddly familiar…. mhmm anyway. After about an hour…

Re-log into VAMI.

Looks good, going to the main mgmt page… mhmm shows 404, but by the time I wanted to get a snip, it refreshed to show the FBA page, so I logged in like normal.

Yay it worked.

Patching ESXi

In vCenter, go to the host, pick updates, then baseline, and check compliance.

On the two baselines, select them and pick remediate.

Server went into maintenance mode, and after about 20 min (I think it rebooted, I didn’t have an active ping on it, not sure will check on the next one).

My PA-ESXi is a special beast, it for some reason needs a helping hand during boot, so we’ll know if it reboots this time…

yup… it rebooted.

Fun times had by all.

Configuring shared LVM over iSCSI on Proxmox

So, I’ve been recently playing with Proxmox for virtualization. It’s pretty nice, but in my cluster (which consisted of two old laptops) whenever I would migrate VM’s or Containers it would have to migrate the storage over the network as well. Since they are just old laptops everything connects together with 1 gbps to switches with the same rated ports.

I’m used to iSCSI so I checked the Proxmox storage guidance to see what I could use.

I was interested in ZFS over iSCSI. However, I temporarily gave up on this cause for some reason… you have to allow root access to the FreeNAS box over SSH, on the same network that the iSCSI is for….

First of all we need to setup SSH keys to the freenas box, the SSH connection needs to be on the same subnet as the iSCSI Portal, so if you are like me and have a separate VLAN and subnet for iSCSI the SSH connection needs to be established to the iSCSI Portal IP and not to the LAN/Management IP on the FreeNAS box.
The SSH connection is only used to list the ZFS pools”

Also mentioned in this guide.

This was further verified when I attempted to setup ZFS on an iSCSI disk, I go this error message:

Since I didn’t want to configure my NAS to have root access over SSH, on the iSCSI network. I was still curious then what the point of iSCSI was for PVE if you can’t use a drive shared… Reviewing the chart above, and this comment “i guess the best way to do it, is to create a iscsi storage via the gui and then an lvm storage also via the gui (if you want to use lvm to manage the disks) or directly use the luns (they have to be managed on the storage server side)

I ended up using LVM on the disk “3: It is possible to use LVM on top of an iSCSI or FC-based storage. That way you get a shared LVM storage”

However, using this model you can’t use snapshots. ūüôĀ
You can use LVM-Thin but that’s not shared.

Step 1) Setup Storage Server

In my case I’m using a FreeNAS server, with spare drive ports, so for this test I took a 2TB drive (3.5″), plugged it in and wiped it from the web UI.

After this I configured a new extent as a raw device share.

Created the associated targets and portals. Once this was done (since I had dynamic discovery on my ESXi hosts) they discovered the disk. I left them be, but probably best to have separate networks…. but I’ll admit… I was lazy.

Step 2) Configure PVE hosts

In my case I had to add the iSCSI network (VLAN tagged) on to my hosts. This is easy enough Host -> System -> Network -> Create Linux VLAN

OK, so where in ESXi you simply add an iSCSI adapter, in PVE you have to install it first? Sure ok lets do that… Turns out it was already installed.
after reading that and seeing what my ESXi did, I managed to edit my /etc/pve/storage.cfg and added

iscsi: freenas
target iqn.2005-10.org.freenass.ctl:proxhdd
content none

To my surprise… it showed as a storage unit on both my PVE hosts. :O

mhmm doing a df -h, I don’t see anything… but doing a fdisk -l sure enough I see the drive.. so cool ūüôā
So now that I got both hosts to see the same disk, I guess it simply comes down to creating a file system on the raw disk.
Or not… when I try to create a ZFS using the WebUI it just says no disk are available.

Step 3) Setup LVM

However, adding an LVM works:

After setting up LVM the data source should show up on all nodes in the cluster that have access to the disk. One on of my nodes it wasn’t showing as accessible until I rebooted the node that had no problems accessing it. ¬Į\_(„ÉĄ)_/¬Į

So, there’s no option to pick storage when migrating a VM, you have to go into the VM’s hardware settings and “move the disk”.

When I went to do my first live VM migration, I got an error:

I soon realized this was just my mistake by not having selected “delete source” since when “moving the disk” it actually converted the disk from qcow2 to raw and didn’t delete the old qcow2 file. So I simply deleted it. then tried again…

and it worked! Now the only problem is no snapshots. I attempted to create an LVM-Thin on top the LVM, and it did create it, but as noted in the chart both my hosts could not access it at the same time, so not shared.

Guess I’ll have to see how Ceph works. That’ll be a post for another day. Cheers.

*Update* I’ll have to implement a filter on FreeNAS cause Proxmox I guess won’t implement a fix that was given to them for free.



Delete Root Certificate from vCenter

In my last two posts, we renewed the Root Certificate on the VCSA.

We then renewed the STS certificate.

But we were left with the old Root certificate in on the VCSA, how do we removed it?

You can use the Certificate Management vCenter Trusted Root Chains interface to add, delete and read trusted root certificate chains. This use case demonstrates how to delete a root certificate or certificate chain from the trusted root store of your vCenter Server system.

Deleting certificates is not available through the vSphere Client and you can only do this by using the vSphere Automation API or the CLI tools.

Deleting a root certificate or certificate chain that is in use might cause breakage of your systems. Proceed to delete a root certificate only if you are sure it is not in use by your vCenter Server or any connected systems.

The above link may have good warning, the steps in it are useless, and didn’t work for me, possibly cause I did have the “vSphere Automation¬†API server” or something, I’m not sure putting in the get into a browser simply prompted for creds and didn’t accept them.

So, you can also use PowerCLI, or vecs-cli lets try the latter.

1 ) List the certificates using vecs-cli.

/usr/lib/vmware-vmafd/bin/vecs-cli entry list --store TRUSTED_ROOTS --text | less

2) Find the Certificate you wish to remove and make a note of the Alias and the X509v3 Subject Key Identifier.

My case:
Alias : 9eadf42a18387ee983d3dfa4f607eee91a3e5b67
X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 0B:62:2D:98:7B:28:34:2A:14:81:CD:34:AC:46:40:06:80:DA:84:3E

3) List the trusted certs published to the VMware Directory Service using the following command (administrator@vsphere.local password required). This command is in the same location as vecs-cli:
C:\Program Files\VMware\vCenter Server\vmafdd>dir-cli trustedcert list

/usr/lib/vmware-vmafd/bin/dir-cli trustedcert list

This will output a list of Certificates published to VMDIR. It will look similar to the following output:

4) Locate the Certificate’s CN (thumbprint) which matches the Key Identifier from Step 2 above. In this example, the Certificate will be the first one in the list with the following CN:


5) Using the ID located in Step 4, run the following command, change ID from step 4:

/usr/lib/vmware-vmafd/bin/dir-cli trustedcert get --id 0B622D987B28342A1481CD34AC46400680DA843E --login administrator@vsphere.local --outcert /tmp/oldcert.cer

6) Un-publish the CA Certificate from VMDIR by running the following command:

/usr/lib/vmware-vmafd/bin/dir-cli trustedcert unpublish --cert /tmp/oldcert.cer

7) Delete the Certificate from VECS utilizing the Alias located in Step 2 by running the following command:

/usr/lib/vmware-vmafd/bin/vecs-cli entry delete --store TRUSTED_ROOTS --alias 9eadf42a18387ee983d3dfa4f607eee91a3e5b67

8) Confirm that the Certificate was deleted by running the following command:

/usr/lib/vmware-vmafd/bin/vecs-cli entry list --store TRUSTED_ROOTS --text | grep Alias

9) Force a refresh of VECS by running the following command. This will ensure updates are pushed to the other PSCs in the environment if there is more than one.

/usr/lib/vmware-vmafd/bin/vecs-cli force-refresh

10) Restart all services on the PSCs and on the vCenter Servers and ensure that all services start and respond normally and that you can log in and manage the environment. (aka giver a reboot)

Logged in just fine, and certs are now clean as a whistle:

Looks like Root Certs are good for 10 Years, STS Certs are good for 10 years, machine Cert is good for 2 years.

Hope these last couple posts help someone.

Renew vCenter STS Certificate

Source: Refresh a vCenter Server STS Certificate Using the vSphere Client (vmware.com)

  1. Log in with the vSphere Client to the vCenter Server.
  2. Specify the user name and password for administrator@vsphere.local or another member of the vCenter Single Sign-On Administrators group.
    If you specified a different domain during installation, log in as administrator@ mydomain.
  3. Navigate to the Certificate Management UI.
    1. From the Home menu, select Administration.
    2. Under Certificates, click Certificate Management.
  4. If the system prompts you, enter the credentials of your vCenter Server.
  5. Under STS Signing Certificate, click Actions > Refresh with vCenter certificate.

  1. Click Refresh.
    The VMCA refreshes the STS signing certificate on this vCenter Server system and on any linked vCenter Server systems.
  2. (Optional) If the Force Refresh button appears, vCenter Single Sign-On has detected a problem. Before clicking Force Refresh, consider the following potential results.
    • If all the impacted¬†vCenter Server¬†systems are not running at least vSphere 7.0 Update 3, they do not support the certificate refresh.
    • Selecting¬†Force Refresh¬†requires that you restart all¬†vCenter Server¬†systems and can render those systems inoperable until you do so.
    1. If you are unsure of the impact, click Cancel and research your environment.
    2. If you are sure of the impact, click Force Refresh to proceed with the refresh then manually restart your vCenter Server systems.
I guess my setup had a problem? or it’s still valid or a long time, I don’t know why my setup says force refresh, but lets do it…
Mhmmm… k vCenter still working normally, and no forced reboot, just saying all systems need to be rebooted….
I navigated away and back and it shows the new cert…
reboot anyway… sign in, no issues…
But the old root still exists, can it be deleted?
Yes… Check out how on my next Blog post.

Renew Root Certificate on vCenter

Renew Root Certificate on vCenter

I’ve always accepted the self signed cert, but what if I wanted a green checkbox? With a cert sign by an internal PKI….¬† We can dream for now I get this…

First off since I did a vCenter rename, and in that post I checked the cert, that was just for the machine cert (the Common name noticed above snip), this however didn’t renew/replace the root certificate. If I’m going to renew the machine cert, may as well do a new Root, I’m assuming this will also renew the STS cert, but well validate that.

Source: Regenerate a New VMCA Root Certificate and Replace All Certificates (vmware.com)


You must know the following information when you run vSphere Certificate Manager with this option.

Password for administrator@vsphere.local.
The FQDN of the machine for which you want to generate a new VMCA-signed certificate. All other properties default to the predefined values but can be changed.


Log in to the vCenter Server on an embedded deployment or on a Platform Services Controller and start the vSphere Certificate Manager.
OS Command
For Linux:               /usr/lib/vmware-vmca/bin/certificate-manager
For Windows:      C:\Program Files\VMware\vCenter Server\vmcad\certificate-manager.bat
*Is Windows still support, I thought they dropped that a while ago…)

Select option 4, Regenerate a new VMCA Root Certificate and replace all certificates.

ok dokie… 4….

and then….

five minutes later….

Checking the Web UI, shows the main sign in page already has the new Cert bound, but attempting to sign in and get the FBA page just reported back that “vmware services are starting”. The SSH session still shows 85%, I probably should have done this via direct console as I’m not 100% if if affect the SSH session. I’d imagine it wouldn’t….

10 minutes later, I felt it was still not responding, on the ESXi host I could see CPU on VCSA up 100% and stayed there the whole time and finally subsided 10 minutes later, I brought focus to my SSH session and pressed enter…

Yay and the login…. FBA page loads.. and login… Yay it works….

So even though the Root Cert was renewed, and the machine cert was renewed… the STS was not and the old Root remains on the VCSA….

So the KB title is a bit of a lie and a misnomer “Regenerate a New VMCA Root Certificate and Replace All Certificates”… Lies!!

But it did renew the CA cert and the Machine cert, in my next post I’ll cover renewing the STS cert.


Donation Button Broken

I had got so used to not getting donations I never really thought to check and see if the button/link/service was still working. It wasn’t until my colleague informed me that it was not working since they attempted to do so. Very thoughtful, even though I pretty much don’t get any otherwise I was still curious as to what happened. So lets see, My site -> Blog -> donate:

Strange this was working before, it’s all plug-in driven. No settings changed, no plugins updated or api changes I’m aware of. So, I went to Google to see what I could find, funny how it’s always reddit to have info, other with the same results… such this guy, who at the time of this writing responded 12 hours ago to a comment asking if they resolved it, with a sad no. There’s also this one, with a response to simple “check your PayPal account settings”.

This lead me down an angry rabbit hole, so when you login you figure the donation button on the right side would be it:

Think again this simply leads to https://www.paypal.com/fundraiser/hub/

This simply leads to a marketing page about giving donations to other charities, not about managing your own incoming donation. I did eventually find the URL needed to manage them: https://www.paypal.com/donate/buttons/manage

However navigating to it when already logged made the browser just hang in place, eventually erroring out, I asked support via messaging but it was a an automod with auto responses and that didn’t help.

I found one other read post with the following response:

“It‚Äôs because you don‚Äôt have a charity business account and you didn‚Äôt get pre-approval from PayPal to accept donations. It‚Äôs in the AUP.”

Everything else if you google simple links to this: Accepting Donations | Donate Button | PayPal CA

Clicked get started… and

and then….

Oh c’mon…. This pro’s n cons, and ifs and buts are out of scope of this blog post. I picked Upgrade since I’m hoping to use it just for personal donations and nothing else is tied to this account right now, it says its free but I dunno…

Provide a business name, unno ZewwyCA (not sure if it supposed to be reg, I picked personal donations via the link above, so why is it pushing this on me…)

I can’t pick web hosting…. you can’t even read the whole line options under purpose of accounts… redic, sales? none, it costs me money to run this site.

After all this the dashboard changed a bit and there was something about accepting donations on the bottom right:

I tried my button again but same error of org not accepting donations… mhmm.

Let me check paypal… ughhh signed me out due to time out… log in… c’mon already….

This is brutal…. It basically “verified my residential details”… and it seemed to have removed my banking info… and even though some history still shows…

Clicking on the “view all” gives me nothing on the linked page…

Also, notice the warning about account holder verification… cool…

this sucks… number that just show you the last 2 digits, asking for occupation… jeez… then

This is a grind… why did they have to make these stupid changes!

Testing Finally!!! it works again…. jeees what a pain…. I still feel something might have broke, but I’ll fix those I guess when I feel it needs to be done. Hope this helps someone.

First time Postfix

I setup a new Container on Proxmox VE. I did derp out and didn’t realize you had to pre-download templates. It also failed to start, but apparently due to no storage space (you can only see it when you pay close attention when creating the container, it won’t state so when trying to start it. YYou figure creation would simply fail)

Debian 12, and off to the races…

As usual.. first things first, updates. Classic.

Went to follow this basic guide.
I created a user, and set password, started and enabled postfix service.

I figured I’d just do the old send email via telnet trick.

Which kept saying connection refused. I found a similar post, and found nothing was listening on port 25. I checked the existing config file:


seemed there was nothing for smb like mentioned in that post, adding it manuallyy didn’t seem to help. I did notice that I didn’t have the chance to run the config wizard for postfix. Which from this guide tells you how to initiate it manually:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure postfix

After running this I was able to see the system listening on port 25:

After which the smtp email sendind via telnet worked.. but where was the email, or user’s mailbox? mbox style sounds kinda lame one file for all mail.. yeech…

maildir option sounds much better

added “home_mailbox = /var/mail/” to my postfix config file, and restarted postfix… now:

well that’s a bit better, but how can I get my mail in a better fashion, like a mailbox app, or web app? Well Web app seems out of the question

If I find a good solution to the mail checking problem I’ll update this blog post. Postfix is alright for an MTA I guess simple enough to configure. Well there’s apparently this setup you can do, that is PostFix Mail Transfer Agent(MTA SMTP), with Dovecot a secure IMAP and POP3 Mail Delivery Agent(MDA). These two open-source applications work well with Roundcube. The web app to check mail. Which seems like a lot to go through…

Spammed via BCC

Well, whenever I’d check my local email, I noticed a large amount of spam and junk getting sent to my mailbox. The problem was the spammers were utilizing a trick of using BCC, aka Blind Carbon Copy. This means that the actual users it was all sent to (in a bulk massive send, no less) were all hidden from all people that received the email.

Normally people only have one address associated with their mailbox, and thus it would be obvious which address it was sent to, and getting these to stop outside of other technical security measures can be very difficult. It’s very similar to a real-life person who knows where you live and is harassing you, secretly at night by constantly egging your house. You can’t ask them to stop since you don’t know who they are, can’t really use legal tactics because you don’t know who they are. Sop you have to rely on other means, first identification if the person is wished to be identified, or simply move. Both are tough.

In my case I use multiple email addresses when signing up for stuff so if one of those service providers get hacked or compromised, I usually can simply remove the leaked address from my list of email addresses.

However because the spammer was using BCC, the actual to address was changed to a random address.

Take a look at this example, as you can see, I got the email, but it was addressed to jeff.work@yorktech.ca. I do not own this domain so to me it was clearly forged. However, that doesn’t help me in determining which of the multiple email addresses had been compromised.

I figured I’d simple use EAC and check the mail flow section, but for some reason it would always return nothing (broken)?

Sigh, lucky for me there’s the internet, and a site called practical365 with an amazing exchange admin who writes amazing posts who goes by the name Paul Cummingham. This was the post to help me out: Searching Message Tracking Logs by Sender or Recipient Email Address (practical365.com)

In the first image you can see the sender address, using this as a source I provided the following PowerShell command in the exchange PowerShell window:

Get-MessageTrackingLog -Sender uklaqfb@avasters.nov.su

Oh, there we go, the email address I created for providing a donation to heart n stroke foundation. So, I guess at some point the Heart n Stroke foundation had a security breach. Doing a quick Google search, wow, huh sure enough, it happene 3 years ago….

Be wary of suspicious messages, Heart and Stroke Foundation warns following data breach | CTV News

Data security incident and impact on Heart and Stroke constituents | Heart and Stroke Foundation

This is what I get for being a nice guy. Lucky for me I created this email alias, so for me it’s as simple as deleting it from my account. since I do not care for any emails from them at this point, fuck em! can’t even keep our data safe, the last donation they get from me.

Sadly, I know many people can’t do this same technique to help keep their data safe. I wish it was a feature available with other email providers, but I can understand why they don’t allow this as well as email sprawl would be near unmanageable for a service provider.

Hope this post helps someone in the same boat.

Upgrading Windows 10 2016 LTSB to 2019 LTSC

*Note 1* – This retains the Channel type.
*Note 2* – Requires a new Key.
*Note 3* – You can go from LTSB to SA, keeping files if you specify new key.
*Note 4* – LTSC versions.
*Note 5* – Access to ISO’s. This is hard and most places state to use the MS download tool. I however, managed to get the image and key thanks to having a MSDN aka Visual Studio subscription.

I attempted to grab the 2021 Eval copy and ran the setup exe. When it got to the point of wanting to keep existing file (aka upgrading) it would grey them all out… ūüôĀ

So I said no to that, and grabbed the 2019 copy which when running the setup exe directly asks for the key before moving on in the install wizard… which seems to let me keep existing files (upgrade) ūüôā

My enjoyment was short lived when I was presented with a nice window update failed window.

Classic. So the usual, “sfc /scannow”

Classic. So fix it, “dism /online/ cleanup-image /restorehealth”

Stop, Disable Update service, then clear cache:

Scan system files again, “sfc /scannow”

reboot make sure system still boots fine, check, do another sfc /scannow, returns 100% clean. Run Windows update (after enabling the service) comes back saying 100% up to date. Run installer….

For… Fuck… Sakes… what logs are there for this dumb shit? Log files created when you upgrade Windows 11/10 to a newer version (thewindowsclub.com)

setuperr.log Same as setupact.log Data about setup errors during the installation. Review all errors encountered during the installation phase.

Coool… where is this dumb shit?

Log files created when an upgrade fails during installation before the computer restarts for the second time.

  • C:\$Windows.~BT\Sources\panther\setupact.log
  • C:\$Windows.~BT\Sources\panther\miglog.xml
  • C:\Windows\setupapi.log
  • [Windows 10:] C:\Windows\Logs\MoSetup\BlueBox.log

OK checking the log…..

Lucky me, something exists as documented, count my graces, what this file got for me?

PC Load letter? WTF does that mean?!¬† While it’s not listed in this image it must have been resolved but I had a line that stated “required profile hive does not exist” in which I managed to find this MS thread of the same problem, and thankfully someone in the community came back with an answer, which was to create a new local temp account, and remove all old profiles and accounts on the system (this might be hard for some, it was not an issue for me), sadly I still got, Windows 10 install failed.

For some reason the next one that seems to stick out like a sore thumb for me is “PidGenX function failed on this product key”. Which lead me to this thread all the way back from 2015.

While there’s a useless comment by “SaktinathMukherjee”, don’t be this dink saying they downloaded some third party software to fix their problem, gross negligent bullshit. The real hero is a comment by a guy named “Nathan Earnest” – “I had this same problem for a couple weeks. Background: I had a brand new Dell Optiplex 9020M running Windows 8.1 Pro. We unboxed it and connected it to the domain. I received the same errors above when attempting to do the Windows 10 upgrade. I spent about two weeks parsing through the setup error logs seeing the same errors as you. I started searching for each error (0x800xxxxxx) + Windows 8.1. Eventually I found one suggesting that there is a problem that occurs during the update from Windows 8 to Windows 8.1 in domain-connected machines. It doesn’t appear to cause any issues in Windows 8.1, but when you try to upgrade to Windows 10… “something happened.”

In my case, the solution: Remove the Windows 8.1 machine from the domain, retry the Windows 10 upgrade, and it just worked. Afterwards, re-join the machine to the domain and go about your business.

Totally **** dumb… but it worked. I hope it helps someone else.”

Again, I’m free to try stuff, so since I was testing I cloned the machine and left it disconnected from the network, then under computer properties changed from domain to workgroup (which means it doesn’t remove the computer object from AD, it just removes itself from being part of a domain). After this I ran another sfc /scannow just to make sure no issue happened from the VM cloning, with 100% green I ran the installer yet again, and guess what… Nathan was right. The update finally succeeded, I can now choose to rename the PC and rejoin the domain, or whatever, but the software on the machine shouldn’t need to be re-installed.

Another fun dumb day in paradise, I hope this blog post ends up helping someone.


Move Linux Swap and Extend OS File System


So, you go to run updates, in this case some Linux servers. So, you dust off your old dusty fingers and type the blissful phrase, “apt update” followed by the holier than thou “apt upgrade”….

You watch as the test scrolls past the screen in beautiful green text console style, as you whisper, “all I see is blonde, and brunette”, having seen the same text so many times you glaze over them following up with “ignorance is bliss”.

Your sweet dreams of living in the Matrix come to a halt as instead of success you see the dreaded red text on the screen and realize the Matric has no red text. Shucks this is reality, and the update has just failed.

Reality can be a cruel place, and it can also be unforgiving, in this case the application that failed to update is not the problem (I mean you could associate blame here if the dev’s and maintainers didn’t do any due diligence on efficiencies, but I digress), the problem was simply, the problem as old as computers themselves “Not enough storage space”.

Now, you might be wondering at this point… what does this have to do with Linux Swap?!?!? Like any good ol’ storyteller, I’m gettin’ to that part. Now where was I… oh yes, that pesty no space issue. Now normally this would be a very simple endeavor, either:

A) Go clear up needless crap.
Trust me I tried, ran apt autoclean, and apt clean. Looked through the File System, nothing was left to remove.

B) Add more storage.
This is the easiest route, if virtualized simply expand the VM’s HDD on the host that’s serving it, or if physical DD the contents to a drive of similar bus but with higher tier storage.

Lucky for me the server was virtual, now comes the kicker, even after expanding the hard drive, the Linux machine was configured to have a partition-based Swap. In both situations, virtual and physical, this will have to be dealt with in order to expand the file system the Linux OS is utilizing.

Swap: What is it?

Swap is space on a hard drive reserved for putting memory temporary while another request for memory is being made and there is no more actual RAM (Random Access Memory) available for it to be placed for use. The system simply takes lower access memory and just kind “shows it under the rug” to be cleaned or used later.

If you were running a system with massive amounts of memory, you could, in theory, run without swap, just remove it and life’s good. However, in lots of cases memory is a scarce commodity vs something like hard drive storage, the difference is merely speed.

Anyway, in this case I attempted to remove swap entire (steps will be provided shortly), however this system was no different in terms of just being provisioned enough where several MB of RAM was actually being placed into swap, as such when I removed the swap, and all the services began to spin up the VM became unusable, as running commands would return unable to associate memory. So instead, the swap was simply changed from a partition to a file-based swap.

Step 1) Stop Services

This step may or may not be required, it depends on your systems current resource allocations, if you’re in the same boat as I was in that commands won’t run as the system is at max memory usage; then this is needed to ensure the system doesn’t become unusable during the transition, as it will require to disable swap for a short time.

The commands to stop services will depend on both the Linux distro used and the service being managed. This is beyond the scope of this post.

Step 2) Verify Swap

Run the command:

swapon -s

This is an old Linux machine I plan on decommissioning, but as we can see here, a shining example of a partition-based swap, and the partition it’s assigned to. /dev/sda3. We can also see some of the swap is actually used. During my testing I found Linux wouldn’t disable swap if it is unable to allocate physical memory for its content, which makes sense.

Step 3) Create Swap File

Create the Swap file before disabling the current partition swap or apparently the dd command will fail due to memory buffers.

dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile count=1 bs=1GiB

This also depends on the size of your old swap, change the command accordingly based on the size of the partition you plan to remove. In my case roughly a Gig.

chmod -v 0600 /swapfile
chown -v root:root /swapfile
mkswap /swapfile

Step 4) Disable Swap

Now it’s time for us to disable swap so we can convert it to a file-based version. If it states it can’t move the data to memory cause memory is full, revert to step 1 which was to stop services to make room in memory. If this can’t be done due to service requirements, then you’d have to schedule a Maintenace window, since without enough memory on the host service interruption is inevitable… Mr.Anderson.

swapoff /dev/sda3

easy peasy.

Step 5) Enable Swap File

swapon /swapfile

Step 6) Edit fstab

Now looks like we done, but don’t forget this is handled by fstab after reboot, just ask me how I know….¬† yeah, I found out the hard way… let’s check the existing fstab file…

cat /etc/fstab

Step 7) Reboot and Verify Services

Wait both mounted as swap… what??!?

To fix this, I removed the partition, updated kernel usage, and initram, then reboot:

fdisk /dev/sda
update-initramfs -u

Rebooted and swapon showed just the file swap being used. Which means the deleted partition is no longer in the way of the sectors to allow for a full proper expansion of the OS file system. Not sure what was with the error… didn’t seem to affect anything in terms of the services being offered by the server.

Step 8) Extending the OS File System

If you’ve ever done this on Windows, you’ll know how easy it is with Disk Manager. On linux it’s a bit… interesting… you delete the partition to create it again, but it doesn’t delete the data, which we all come to expect in the Windows realm.

fdisk /dev/sda
resize2fs /dev/sda2

The above simply delete’s the second partition, then recreates it using all available sectors on the disk. Then final commands allows the file system to use all the available sectors, as extended by fdisk.


Have fun doing whatever you need to do with all the new extra space you have.¬† Is there any performance impact from doing this? Again, if you have a system with adequate memory, the swap should never be used. If you want to go down that rabbit hole.. here.. Swap File vs Swap Partition : r/linux4noobs (reddit.com) have fun. Could I have removed the swap partition, created it at the end of the new extended hard drive…. yes… I could have but that would have required calculating the sectors, and extending the new file system to the sector that would be the start of the new swap partition, and I much rather press enter a bunch of times and have the computer do it all for me, I can also extend a file easier than a partition, so read the reddit thread… and pick your own poisons…