## Log Searching with Powershell

Context. You have a log directory with hundreds of log files, you need to look for a specific string, but you don’t know which file it resides in.

With PowerShell we can restrict things down in two ways.

1. If we roughly know when the log entry was done, we can constrain on time.
2.  We can then use Select String to filter further.
$daysToCheck =$(get-date).AddDays(-2)

-2 in this case indicates I want to find files that were modified at most 2 days ago. These means from right now, go back a max of 2 days.

Get-ChildItem -Recurse | ?{$_.LastWriteTime -gt$daysToCheck} | Select-String "String to Search for" -list | Select Path

In this example it’ll search the current working directory as it was not defined in the first command call. the list operation is important as to only list the file the string was found in once, else the file path will be listed for every instance the string is found within the file.

This will list all the files contain the string in question. What you wish to do with this is list is on you. However you at least now know where to look further for more information on whatever it is you might be looking for.

Hope this helps someone.

# Prerequisites

• AD with a Enterprise CA
Why? For easier Certificate management, if you want step by step details using self sign, you can read this blog post by Tyler Muir. Thanks Tyler for your wonderful blog post it was really help to me.
• Server Core (2016+)
• A Certificate Template published and available to client machines

Now you *Technically* don’t need a template, if you were using self signed. However there are some prerequisites to the Certificate. According to the official Microsoft source it states:

“WinRM HTTPS requires a local computer Server Authentication certificate with a CN matching the hostname to be installed. The certificate mustn’t be expired, revoked, or self-signed.”

If you have a correct cert but not for the type of server auth you will get an error:

Which is super descriptive and to the point.

# Implementation

## Basic Implementation

If you don’t have a Server Authenticating certificate, consult your certificate administrator. If you have a Microsoft Certificate server, you may be able to request a certificate using the web certificate template from HTTPS://<MyDomainCertificateServer>/certsrv.

Once the certificate is installed type the following to configure WINRM to listen on HTTPS:

winrm quickconfig -transport:https

If you don’t have an appropriate certificate, you can run the following command with the authentication methods configured for WinRM. However, the data won’t be encrypted.

winrm quickconfig

Example:

On my Core Server domain joined, using a “Computer”/Machine Template certificate.

powershell
cd Cert:\LocalMahcine\My
Get-Certificate -Template Machine

ensure you exit out of powershell to run winrm commands

winrm quickconfig -transport:HTTPS

Congrats you’re done.

Now remember in the above it stated “If you don’t have a Server Authenticating certificate, consult your certificate administrator. If you have a Microsoft Certificate server, you may be able to request a certificate using the web certificate template ”

That’s what this section hopes to cover.

There’s only one other pre-req I can think of besides the primary ones mentioned at the start of this blog post.

Once these are met, request a certificate from the CA and ensure it’s installed on the client machine you wish to configure WinRM on. Once installed grab the certificate Thumbprint.

Creating the listener using the certificate ThumbPrint:

winrm create winrm/config/Listener?Address=*+Transport=HTTPS '@{Hostname="<YOUR_DNS_NAME>"; CertificateThumbprint="<COPIED_CERTIFICATE_THUMBPRINT>"}'

Manually configuring the Firewall:

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Windows Remote Management (HTTPS-In)" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=5986

Start the service:

net start winrm

# Issues

## Failed to create listener

Error: “The function: “HttpSetServiceConfiguration” failed unexpectedly. Error=1312.

Resolution: Ensure the machine actually has the key required for the certificate.  See Reference Three in this blog for more details.

## Not Supported Certificate

Error: “The requested certificate template is not supported by this CA”

Resolution: Ensure you typed the Certificate template name correctly. If so, Ensure it is published to the CA signing the certificate.

# References

## Zero

official Microsoft source

## One

Straight to the point command references at site below:
ITOM Practitioner Portal (microfocus.com)

## Two

Another great source that covers manual setup of WinRM:
Visual Studio Geeks | How to configure WinRM for HTTPS manually

## Three

When using the MMC snap in pointed to a ore server certificate store, and generated the cert request, and imported the certificate all using the MMC Snap cert plugin remotely. Whenever I would go to create the listener it would error out with “The function: “HttpSetServiceConfiguration” failed unexpectedly. Error=1312.

I could only find this guys blog post covering it where he seems to indicate that he wasn’t importing the key for the cert.

Powershell WinRM HTTPs CA signed certificate configuration | vGeek – Tales from real IT system Administration environment (vcloud-lab.com)

This reminded me of a similar issue using Microsoft User Migration Tool and the Cert store showing it had the cert key (little key icon in the cert mmc snap in) but not actually being available. I felt this was the same case. Creating the req from the client machine directly, copying to CA, signing, copying signed cert back to client machine and installing manually resolved the issue.

My might have been able to just use the cert I created via the MMC snap in by running

certutil –repairstore my <serial number>



I did not test this and simply create the certificate (Option 2) from scratch.

## Four

“The requested certificate template is not supported by this CA.

A valid certification authority (CA) configured to issue certificates based on this template cannot be located, or the CA does not support this operation, or the CA is not trusted.”

This one lead me down a rabbit hole for a long time. Whenever I would have everything in place and request the certificate via powershell I would get this error. If you Google it you will get endless posts how all you need to do is “Publish it to your CA”, such this and this

it wasn’t until I attempted to manually create the certificate (Option 2) did it finally state the proper reason which was.

“A certificate issued by the certificate  authority cannot be installed. Contact your system administrator.
a certificate chain could not be built to a trusted root authority.”

I think checked, and sure enough (I have no clue how) my DC was missing the Offline Root Certificate in it’s Trusted Root Authority store.

Again all buggy, attempting to do it via the Certificate Snap in MMC remotely caused an error, so I had to manually copy the offline root cert file to the domain controller and install it manually with certutil.

This error can also stem from specifying a certificate template that doesn’t exist on the CA. Hence all the blog posts to “publish it”.  HOWEVER, in my case I had assumed the “Computer” template (as seen in MMC Snap in Cert tool) is only the display name, the actual name for this template is actually “Machine”

## Five

I just have to share this, cause this trick saved my bacon. If you use RDP to manage a core server, you can also use the same RDP to copy files to the core server. Since you know, server core doesn’t have a “GUI”.

On windows server core, how can I copy file located in my local computer to the windows server? – Server Fault

In short

1. enable you local drive under the Resources tab of RDP before connecting.
2. open notepad on the RDP session core server.
3. Press CTRL+O (or File->Open). Change file type to all.
4. Use the notepad’s file explorer to move files. 😀

## Six

Another thing to note about Core Server 2016:

Unable to Change Security Settings / Log on as Batch Service on Server Core (microsoft.com)

Server Core 2016, does not have added capability via FOD

Thus does not have secpol, or mmc.exe natively. To set settings either use Group Policy, or if testing on standalone instances or Server Core 2016, you’ll have to define to security policies via a system with a GUI installed, export them and import them into core using secedit.

¯\_(ツ)_/¯

## Microsoft Certificate Auto-enrollment

Thanks to Vadims Podans for his detailed write up.

Source 3 (Official): Configure server certificate auto-enrollment | Microsoft Docs

# Overview

Autoenrollment configuration in general consist of three steps: configure autoenrollment policy, prepare certificate templates and prepare certificate issuers. Each configuration step is described in next sections.

# Pre-requirements

• Enterprise CA
• Proper Permissions (This post assumed domain admin rights)

# Setup

## Configure Autoenrollment Policy

1. Start Group Policy editor. In Active Directory environment, use Group Policy Management Console (gpmc.msc). In workgroup environment, use Local Group Policy Editor (gpedit.msc);
2. Expand to
 Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Public Key Policies
1. Double-click on Certificate Services Client – Auto-enrollment;
2. Set Configuration Model to Enabled;
3. Configure the policy save settings:
4. Repeat steps 2-5 for User Configuration node.

*Note 1* You technically don’t *NEED* a policy, the minimum you do need is the registry settings the policy defined. The reason for the policy is obliviously for scalability purposes. The key it defines is:

Key: SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Cryptography\AutoEnrollment
Value: AEPolicy
Type: DWORD

Of course HKLM and HKCU will be used depending on which one was defined in the policy, so if you want user auto enrollment ensure the registry is defined in the HKCU. If you want machine auto enrollment ensure it is defined in HKLM.

*Note 2* Vadims doesn’t cover what each value represents, or what possible values are available. I was only able to find this source on it which made the following statements:

“Hi,
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc731522.aspx

The two checkboxes (point 7) control the value of AEPolicy
0 = non
1 = second
6 = first
7= both selected”

## Configuring Certificate Templates

This section covers how to configure certificate templates.

### Default settings

The following are the default settings:

• Both domain administrators from the root domain, and enterprise administrators for fresh installations of Windows Server 2003 (and newer) domains may configure templates.
• Certificate template ACLs are viewed in the Certificate Templates MMC snap-in.
• Certificate templates can be cloned or edited using the Certificate Templates MMC snap-in.
• Certificate Template need to be published before they can be used.
• Authenticated Users have Read permission on the Template. (Leave it be)

### Creating a new template for the autoenrollment of Web Server Cert

In this exercise we will create certificate template that will be intended for Server Authentication usually for a web server (IIS). As the additional requirement, the certificate will be stored on the server. To create a new template for autoenrollment for a web server:

1. Log on to a computer where ADCS Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) are installed with Enterprise Admins permissions;
2. Press Win+R key combination on the keyboard.
3. In the Run dialog box, type certtmpl.msc, and then click Ok.
The Certificate Templates MMC snap-in may also be invoked using the Certification Authority MMC snap-in by selecting the Certificate Templates folder, right-clicking, and then selecting Manage.
4. In the console tree, click Certificate Templates.
5. In the details pane, right-click the Web Server template, and then click Duplicate Template.
6. The Compatibility tab of the new template properties dialog box appears. Configure compatibility settings to minimum OS version that will consume this template and minimum OS version of CA server that will issue certificates based on this template. (In my Lab Server 2016, and client Windows 10)
7. On the General Tab, Give it a name, Do not publish in AD. If you want more info on these 2 checkboxes read Vadims guide on creating a smart card cert.
8. Click the Request Handling tab. This tab is used to define how the certificate request should be processed. Use default settings in this tab.
9. Switch to Cryptography tab:
I use Key Storage Provider, RSA, 2048, Requests can use any provider.
10. Switch to Subject Name tab. This tab is used to define how the subject name and certificate properties will be built.
*IMPORTANT* Check off “Use subject information from existing certificates for autoenrollment renewal requests.
11. Switch to Security tab. This tab is used to define which users or groups may enroll or autoenroll for a certificate template. A user or group must have the ReadEnroll, and Autoenroll permissions to automatically be enrolled for a certificate template.
In our case any web server computers joined to the domain will be granted Read, Enroll, Autoenroll permissions.

## Publishing the Certificate Template

When certificate template is prepared for autoenrollment, it must be added to Enterprise CA server for issuance. This section will describe how to add certificate template to CA for issuance by using Certification Authority MMC snap-in. For examples using certutil, and Powershell see Vadims post.

*Note* Standalone CA does not support certificate templates

### Configuring CA using MMC

The most convenient way to add certificate template to CA is to use Certification Authority MMC snap in:

1. Log on to CA server or computer with Remote Server Administration Tools installed with CA Administrator permissions;
2. Press Win+R key combination on the keyboard;
3. In the Run… dialog, type “certsrv.msc”;
4. If necessary, click on root node, then press Action menu and select Retarget Certification Authority to connect to desired CA server;
5. When connected, expand CA node and select Certificate Templates folder. You will see certificate templates supported for issuance by this CA.
6. In Action menu, select New and Certificate Template to Issue menu. In the opened dialog, select target template and press Ok to finish. Ensure that certificate template is listed in Certification Authority MMC console.

## Request and Issue Initial Certificate

Now with all the pre-reqs in place. All one has to do is log into the domain joined machine and request a certificate. In our example since we picked Serve 2016 and recipient as Windows 10, the template is saved as a version 4 template.

*Note* Version 3 and 4 templates do not show up under the CA’s web enrollment option.

If everything was done correctly on the client side Certificate snap in for the machine you should be able to see the template listed:

Fill in a common name, and a couple DNS names fields to make browsers SAN requirements happy. Once filled the Enroll option should be available.

# Testing and Validating

Well now that we got that, not sure how to test it getting renewed outside of the time going by…

I did discover this command by searching for an answer:

certutil –pulse

Well that’s doesn’t tell me much… wonder what the office MS source has to say…

Real mature Microsoft… This isn’t new either here’s a bit more deatiled answer from good ol TechNet (RIP).

“Certutil -pulse will initiate autoenrollment requests.

It is equivalent to doing the following in the CertMgr.msc console (in Vista and Windows 7)

Right-click Certificates , point to All Tasks , click Automatically Enroll and Retrieve Certificates .

The command does require that

– any autoenrollment GPO settings have already been applied to the target user or computer

– a certificate template enables Read, Enroll and Autoenroll permissions for the user or a global or universal group containing the user

– The group membership is recognized in the users Token (they have logged on after the membership was added”

This action is available only when you right click the very top “Certificates” node, not the sub folders node under the Personal folder.

So again I wasn’t sure how to validate it will work when time comes, as running the above action in certmgr simply only gave me the option to enroll in the computer certificate template all the other templates were marked as “unavailable” even though I manually enrolled the cert above without issue. Which made me wonder if there’s a difference between auto renewal of a certificate and auto enrollment.

I found this post from a “field  Engineer”  which seemed to conclude that they are tied together in some form.

“The Autoenrollment Group Policy has to be enabled for this feature to work. This feature will also work on certificates issued prior to enabling it.”

However no other details. From what I can tell.. The command certutil -pulse triggers the following Scheduled Task:

Microsoft\Windows\CertificateServicesClient\SystemTask

Which AFAIK will only trigger certificate issuance on certs destined to expire, how close to expiry? I’m not sure, there was the option in the template to log @ 10% remaining. I’m not sure that’s the threshold it uses to trigger a certificate renewal.

I’m not sure if there’s a specific parameter you can set to tell it to renew a certificate before this expiry time.

Final Note… Ensure you enable the auto rebind feature introduced in IIS 8.5 and later. I’ve had this bite me.

# Setup

If you follow other posts on renewing a sub-ca certificate, they usually have two tings to make their lives easier:

1. A server with a GUI
2. an Online Enterprise Root CA

We have none of those. We have:

1. an Offline Root CA (at least it has a GUI)
2. A Server Core Sub CA

Like many times in the past, MMC remote snap-in pointing to a remote core server is lacking the context menu or ability to do what you need.

# Steps

For example this poor guy who posted in Windows QA.

RDP, direct console, whatever floats your boat on this one.

## Step 2) Run the following command:

Certutil -renewCert ReuseKeys

Now you get a pop up, asking you to select an Online CA server to sign the Cert. In small writing on the pop up it says you can click cancel and manually sign the certificate saved under c:\ path.

## Step 3) Copy to Request File to Offline CA

Now save the request file, and copy it onto your Offline Root CA. How you accomplish this in on your and your setup. If it’s all virtualized, do the vUSB trick I often do. If you have RDP access to the Sub CA, use this RDP resource and notepad trick.

Step 4) Issue Certificate on Offline CA
– Open Certificate Authority Tool.
– Right Click Server Node -> All Tasks -> Submit New Request -> Select the request file created in Step 2
– Click on Pending Requests Folder -> Right Click Certificate -> Issue
– Go back to Issued Certificates Folder -> Double Click new Certificate -> Details Tab -> Copy to File -> Save it

## Step 5) Copy Issued Certificate back to Sub CA

Whatever means you did for Step3, do it in reverse.

## Step 6) Install the new Certificate on the Sub CA

certutil -installcert <path to signed certificate>

OK, Stop the Service:

sc stop CertSvc

Then Start it back up:

sc start CertSvc

Then from a remote management machine with the Cert Authority MMC Snap-in added, check the properties on the Sub-CA. You should see the new certificate listed.

Hope this Helps someone.

## Filter n Find Contextually from CMD output

c:\command > c:\txtfile.txt
c:\powershell
<PS>c:\Get-Content c:\txtfile.txt | Select-String -Pattern <String your interested in finding> -Context 2,4

Context 2,4 means 2 lines above, and 4 lines below the string pattern found.

Super useful trick.

## Veeam Backup Failed – SSL/TLS handshake failed

Another day, another issue.

Processing VirtualMachineName Error: Cannot get service content.
Soap fault. SSL_ERROR_SYSCALL
Error observed by underlying SSL/TLS BIO: Unknown errorDetail: 'SSL/TLS handshake failed', endpoint: 'https://vcenter.domain.localca:443/sdk'
SOAP connection is not available. Connection ID: [vcenter.domain.local].
--tr:Unable to open source file

If you come across this error, check if you have any firewalls between your Veeam proxy Server, and the vCenter server.

I’ve blogged about this type of problem before, but in that case it was DNS, in this case it’s a Firewall.

In most cases it’s either:

1) PEBKAC
2) DNS
3) Firewall <— This Case
4) A/V
5) a Bug

You may have noticed a lack in posts lately. It’s not that I can’t figure out content to share, it’s a lack pf motivation.  I’ve been burnt out with work from the pandemic when everyone got a bunch of free money and time off… I just got more work, did I get more pay? I’ll let you decide. The amount of support calls, sheesh. That’s my only real motivation — is not to be hassled. That and the fear of losing my job, but y’know, it will only make someone work just hard enough not to get fired.

This site has earned me $0, so that also doesn’t help. Thanks everyone for all the support keeping this site alive. ## Send an Email using Powershell Build your object…. $mailParams = @{
SmtpServer = 'heimdall.dgcm.ca'
Port = 25
UseSSL = $false From = 'notifications@dgcm.ca' To = 'nos_rulz@msn.com' Subject = ('ON-PREM SMTP Relay - ' + (Get-Date -Format g)) Body = 'This is a test email using ON-PREM SMTP Relay' DeliveryNotificationOption = 'OnFailure', 'OnSuccess' } And then send it…. Send-MailMessage$mailParams

if there’s any pre-reqs required I’ll update this blog post. That should be it though. Easy Peasy Lemon Squeezy.

# Story

## The Precursor

I did NOT want to write this blog post. This post comes from the fact that VMware is not perfect and I’m here to air some dirty laundry…. Let’s get started.

UPDATE* Read on if you want to get into the nitty gritty, otherwise go to the Summary section, for me rebooting the VCSA resolved the issue.

## The Intro

OK, I’ll keep this short. 1 vCenter, 2 hosts, 1 cluster. 1 host started to act “weird”; Random power off,   Boots normal but USB controller not working.

Now this was annoying … A LOT, so I decided I would install ESXi on the local RAID array instead of USB.

Step 1) Make a backup of the ESXi config.

Step 2) Re-install ESXi. When I went to re-install ESXi it stated all data in the exiting datastore would be deleted. Whoops lets move all data first.

Step 2a) I removed all data from the datastore

Step 2b) Delete the Datastore, , and THIS IS THE STEP THAT CAUSED ME ALL FUTURE GRIEF IN THIS BLOG POST! DO NOT FORGET TO DO THIS STEP! IF YOU DO YOU WILL HAVE TO DO EVERYTHING ELSE THIS POST IS TALKING ABOUT!

Unmount, and delete the datastore. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!

*during my testing I found this was not always the case. I was however able to replicate the issue in my lab after a couple of attempts.

Step 3) Re-install ESXi

Step 4) Reload saved Config file, and all is done.

This is when my heart sunk.

## The Assumptions

I had the following wrong assumptions during this terrible mistake:

1. Datastore names are saved in the backup config.
INCORRECT – Datastore names are literally volume labels and stay with the volume in which they were created on.
UUID is stored on the device FS SuperBlock.
2. Removing an orphaned Object in vCenter would be easy.
3. Renaming a Datastore would be easy.
4. Installing on USB drive defaults all install mount points on the USB drive.
INCORRECT – There’s magic involved.

Every one of these assumptions burnt me hard.

## The Problem

So it wasn’t until I clicked on the datastore section of vCenter when my heart sunk. The old datastore was listed attempting to right click and delete the orphaned datastore shot me with another surprise…. the options were greyed out, I went to google to see if I was alone. It turns out I was not alone, but the blog source I found also did not seem very promising… How to easily kill a zombie datastore in your VMware vSphere lab | (tinkertry.com)

Now this blog post title is very misleading, one can say the solution he did was “easy” but guess what … it’s not support by VMware. As he even states “Warning: this is a bit of a hack, suited for labs only”. Alright so this is no good so far.

There was one other notable source. This one mentioned looking out for related objects that might still be linked to the Datastore, in this case there was none. It was purely orphaned.

Talking to other in #VMware on libera chat, told me it might be possibly linked to a scratch location which is probably the reason for the option being greyed out, while this might be a reasonable case for a host, for vCenter in which the scratch location is dependent on a host itself, not vCenter, it should have the ability to clear the datastore, as the ESXi host itself will determine where the scratch location is stored (foreshadowing, this causes me more grief).

In my situation, unlike tinkertry’s situation, I knew exactly what caused the problem, I did not rename the datastore accordingly. Since the datastore name was not named appropriately after being re-created, it was mounted and shown as a new datastore.

## The Plan

It’s one thing to fuck up, it another to fess up, and it’s yet another to have a plan. If you can fix your mistake, it’s prime evidence of learning and growing as you live life. One must always perceiver. Here’s my plan.

Since building the host new and restoring the config with a wrong datastore, I figured I’d I did the same but with the proper datastore in place, I should be able to remove it by bringing it back up.

I had a couple issues to overcome. First one was my 3rd assumption: That renaming a datastore was easy. Which, usually, it is, however… in this case attempting to rename it the same as the missing datastore simply told me the datastore already exists. Sooo poop, you can’t do it directly from a ESXi host unless it’s not managed by vCenter. So as you can tell a catch22, the only way to get past this was to do my plan, which was the same as how I got in this mess to being with. But sadly I didn’t know how bad a hole I had created.

So after installing brand new on another USB stick, I went to create the new datastore with the old name, overwriting the partition table ESXi install created… and you guessed it. Failed to create VMFS datastore. Cannot change host configuration. – Zewwy’s Info Tech Talks

Obviously I had gone through this before, but this time was different. it turned out attempting to clear the GPT partition table and replace it with msdos(MBR) based one failed telling me it was a read-only disk. Huh?

Googling this, I found this thread which seemed to be the root cause… Yeap my 4th assumption: “Installing on USB drive defaults all install mount points on the USB drive.”

so doing a “ls -l”, and “esxcli storage filesystem list” then “vmkfstools -P MOUNTPOINT” I was veriy esay to discover that the scratch and coredump were pointing to the local RAID logical volume I created which overwrote the initial datastore when ESXi was installed. Talk about a major annoyance, like I get why it did what it did, but in this case it is  major hindrance as I can’t clear the logical disk partition to create a new one which will be hold the datastore I need to have mounted there… mhmmm

So I kept trying to change the core dump location and the scratch location and the host on reboot kept picking the old location which was on the local RAID logical volume that kept preventing me from moving forward. Regardless if I did it via the GUI or if I did it via the backend cmd “vim-cmd hostsvc/advopt/update ScratchConfig.ConfiguredScratchLocation string /tmp/scratch” even though VMware KB mentions to create this path path first with mkdir what I found was the creation of this path was not persistent, and it would seem that since it doesn’t exist at boot ESXi changes it via it’s usual “Magic”:

“ESXi selects one of these scratch locations during startup in this order of preference:
The location configured in the /etc/vmware/locker.conf configuration file, set by the ScratchConfig.ConfiguredScratchLocation configuration option, as in this article.
A Fat16 filesystem of at least 4 GB on the Local Boot device.
A Fat16 filesystem of at least 4 GB on a Local device.
A VMFS datastore on a Local device, in a .locker/ directory.
A ramdisk at /tmp/scratch/.”

So in this case, I found this post around a similar issue, and turns out setting the scratch location to just /tmp, worked.

When I attempted to wipe the drive partitions I was again greeted by read-only, however this time it was right back to the coredump location issues, which I verified by running:

esxcli system coredump partition get

which showed me the drive, so I used the unmounted final partition of the USB stick in it’s place:

esxcli system coredump partition set -p USBDriveNAA:PartNum

Which sure enough worked, and I was able to set the logical drive to have a msdos based partition, yay I can finally re-create the datastore and restore the config!

So when the OP in that one VMware thread post said congrats you found 50% of the problem I guess he was right it goes like this.

1. Scratch
2. Coredump

Fix these and you can reuse the logical drive for a datastore. Let’s re-create that datastore…

This is hen my heart sunk yet again…

So I created the datastore successfully however… I had to learn about those peskey UUID’s…

The UUID is comprised of four components. Lets understand this by taking example of one of the vmfs volume’s UUID : 591ac3ec-cc6af9a9-47c5-0050560346b9

System Time (591ac3ec)
CPU Timestamp (cc6af9a9)
Random Number (47c5)
MAC Address – Management Port uplink of the host used to re-signature or create the datastore (0050560346b9)

FFS… I can never be able to reproduce that… and sure enough thats why my UUIDs not longer aligned:

I figured maybe I could make the file, and create a custom symlink to that new file with the same name, but nope “operation not permitted”:

Fuck! well now I don’t know if i can fix this, or if restoring the config with the same datastore name but different UUID will fix it or make things worse…. fuck me man…. not sure I want to try this… might have to do this on my home lab first…

Alright I finally was able to reproduce the problem in my home lab!

Let’s see if my idea above will work…

Step 1) Make config Backup of ESXi host. (should have one before mess up but will use current)

Step 2) Reload host to factory defaults.

Step 3) rename datastore

poop… I was afraid of that…

ok i even tried, disconnecting host from vcenter after deleting the datstore  I could, recreate with same name and it always attaches with appending (1) cause the datastore exists as far as vCenter thinks, since the UUID can never be recovered… I heard a vCenter reboot may help let’s see…

But first I want to go down a rabbit hole…. the Datastore UUID, in this case the ACTUAL datastore UUID, not the one listed in a VM’s config file (.vmx), not the one listed in the vCenter DB’s (that we are trying to fix), but the one actually associated with the Datastore… after much searching…  it seems it is saved in the File Systems “SuperBlock“, in most other File Systems there’s some command to edit the UUID if you really need to. However, for VMFS all I could find was re-signaturing for cloned volumes

So it would seem if I simply would have saved the first 4MB of the logical disk, or partition, not 100% sure which at this time, but I could have in theory done a DD to replace it and recovered the original UUID and then connect the host back to vCenter.

I guess I’ll try a reboot here see what happens….

Well look at that.. it worked…

# Summary

1. Try a reboot
2. If reboot does not Fix it call VMware Support.
3. If you don’t have support, You can try to much the with backend DB (do so at your own risk).

## Installing TWRP on a LG v30

PLEASE NOTE *At the end of this process I did have a fully rooted phone, but I was unable to get TWRP to boot natively and somehow managed to break fastboot ability. I hope to resolve these issues in a future post. The idea of this post was to install TWRP, but the final result wasn’t a working TWRP recovery, but was successful in rooting. I’m more than confident this can be recovered.

Source I used.

What you need:

1. A windows computer with a USB port. (Very Common)
1. If your copy of windows is 32 bit, edit the SetDev.bat script. (Step 1) Part 2.D
2. A USB Cable. Ensure you are using a reliable USB cable (If computer isn’t picking up a device when your phone is plugged in, but you phone is charging you maybe using just a charge cable, again use a known good reliable USB cable).
3. LG v30 with an Unlocked Bootloader

Technically you can go right to installing TWRP from unlocking the bootloader, but much like the source I followed Just taking extra step to make backups.

Step 1) Flash H933 Oreo KDZ – H93320H_00_OPEN_CA_OP_1123.kdz
If you already have a DUMP from H933 firmware, move to Step 3

1. Connect phone to patched LGUP
2. Select Partition DL, Select All, Yes
4. Start
5. Once Complete; Close LGUP and disconnect phone

You should have mobile data again however no TWRP and no root.

Step 2) DUMP partitions

2. Open LGUP
3. Select DUMP
4. Start, select all then select a folder for the files to be dumped to
5. Once Complete; Close LGUP and disconnect phone

This should take about an hour with all partitions selected. Only 9 are needed however, it may be useful in the future to have all of them.
The 9 that are needed are OP, modem, modemst1, modemst2, misc, persist, ftm, pstore, recovery.

Remove “_COMX” and add “.bin” to the 9 files.

Step 3) Flash US998 Nougat KDZ – US99810C_03_1216.kdz

2. Open LGUP
3. Select PARTITION DL

Start, Select All, Yes to partition changes window
When its done it will attempt to boot and you’ll get flashes of an image, perform Master Reset.

Step 4) Flash TWRP

Enable USB Debugging, USB Photo mode.

In Command Prompt ->

adb reboot bootloader

Once rebooted ->

fastboot flash recovery path/to/twrp.img

Once completed ->

fastboot boot twrp.img

Cancel on Password Request for data decrypt
Swipe to allow modifications
Wipe -> Format Data -> yes
Wipe -> Factory Reset
Reboot -> Recovery
Unplug the cable
Reboot -> Power Off

Step 5) Flash H933 Oreo KDZ – H93320H_00_OPEN_CA_OP_1123.kdz again.

2. Open LGUP
3. Select PARTITION DL

Start, Select All, UNSELECT Recovery, Yes to partition changes window

Your phone should reboot to TWRP when finished.

Step 6) Fix Partitions
Swipe to allow modifications
Wipe -> Format Data -> yes
Wipe -> Factory Reset
Reboot -> Recovery
Code:

adb push path\to\Magisk-v18.0.zip /sdcard/
adb push path\to\lg-rctd-disabler-1.0.zip /sdcard/

then Install them in that order: On phone, in TWRP Install, each zip
If you copied the 9 .bin files then Advanced -> File Manager
Copy each .bin to /sdcard/
Otherwise
Code:

adb push path\to\OP.bin /sdcard/
adb push path\to\pstore.bin /sdcard/

Command Prompt ->

adb shell
dd if=/sdcard/OP.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/OP
dd if=/sdcard/modem.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/modem
dd if=/sdcard/modemst1.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/modemst1
dd if=/sdcard/modemst2.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/modemst2
dd if=/sdcard/misc.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/misc
dd if=/sdcard/persist.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/persist
dd if=/sdcard/ftm.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/ftm
dd if=/sdcard/pstore.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/pstore
dd if=/sdcard/recovery.bin of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/recovery

Unplug phone
Reboot -> Power Off
Power On
Should briefly see the same erasing circle from Master Reset

You should now have mobile data again.

Step 7) Clean Up

Get through setup screens
Plug in
In Command Prompt ->

adb push path\to\twrp.img /sdcard/
dd if=/sdcard/twrp.img of=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/recovery

Install Magisk Manager (it always needed a reboot after installing manager app to finish installing)
STOP HERE if you want a stock H933 ROM with unlocked bootloader, custom recovery, and root

IF YOU WANT TO FLASH A PIE ROM go to Settings -> Network -> Mobile network -> Advanced -> Access point names
Take a screenshot or write down every filed for every APN there, make sure to copy the screenshots off the device or at least to an external SD card.

Well This is where this post ends. I did manage to root the phone, and I guess TWRP is on there somewhere, but I can’t boot into it at this moment. It seems any attempt to boot into fastboot, either via ADB commands or hardware button sequences all seem to have the phone boot into the normal Android. I can however get back into flash mode, and I guess I might have to go through a lot of this process again to get TWRP properly working. But I’ll leave that for a future post.

# Unlocking the Bootloader on a LG v30

## Pre Story

In this post I’m going to go over unlocking the bootloader on a LG v30. In my previous post I attempted the same thing and realized I soft locked myself out of the phone by forgetting the account to which I created as a throw away, and they were entangled.

I remember about being able to recover a device owned with proof, when something happens to the person in which it was connected with. Happens in these rare situation. In this case I contacted the place in which it was purchased from and they operate a cell repair store.

I discussed what I had done, sure enough they managed to get past the Google lockout, I wasn’t able to get the exact details as they would have been great for this post, but I understand they don’t want to release all their secrets.

So Let’s get started again.

## All Steps

### Step 0) Factory Reset.

This step ensures you have full control of the device and it is not locked to a specific Google account. If you happen to be in the same situation as me contact the place where you bought the phone, or a cell repair store, in my case I got lucky and there was a way to recover.

To do a normal factory reset when you know the device pin, and Google account.

Settings icon > General tab > scroll to and select Restart & reset > select Factory data reset.

Welcome (Green Arrow right).
Insert SIM (Skip)
Network (LTE off, WiFi Off; Next, No Internet, Skip Anyway) [This is only available if the factory reset was done, if flashed to a different firmware before this was done, then the device will be locked out, and you are expected to connect to a network at this step]
Set Date n Time (Next)
Turn off Tracking, Turn off Diagnostics Data sending (Next)
EULA (Agree)

Welcome to your Factory reset phone, no pin no account tied.

### Step 1) Verify Firmware.

Swipe down from the Notification bar and tap Settings.
Tap Software info. If the Android, Baseband, and Software versions don’t match the current update; perform additional updates until they do.

Now if you read my last post you probably already know but, if you are on exactly US998 Oreo, you can move to Step x. Otherwise you will need to flash your phone to this firmware version. Which is exactly what we are going to be doing next.

as you can see from the source phone. It’s a Canadian version H933, that’s OK we’ll get it to where it needs to be.

### Step 3) Flash the required Firmware.

What you will need:

1. A windows computer with a USB port. (Very Common)
1. If your copy of windows is 32 bit, edit the SetDev.bat script. (Step 1) Part 2.D
2. A USB Cable. Ensure you are using a reliable USB cable (If computer isn’t picking up a device when your phone is plugged in, but you phone is charging you maybe using just a charge cable, again use a known good reliable USB cable).
2. Download LGMobileDriver v4.4.2 (You need this, even if device shows up fine in Device Manger)

If you are wondering why two different firmware’s, cause this is required to “convert to the right firmware type” “Frankenstein Method”

Anyway, once you have all the required files.. Let’s succeeed this time!

#### Step 3 B) With the phone power on, plug it into the computer using your supplied USB cable.

though this what a good connection looks like, the cable in this case was not good and I was getting USB alerts from windows using it.

So I changed cables and now my setup doesn’t look at tidy, but it is working 100%

Once you see the above and the device shows up under device manager as a portable device. You can unplug the phone, and power it off as we prepare the phone to be flashed.

#### Step 3 D) Ensure LGUP is running in Dev mode (after running setDev.bat).

Now if the USB cable is good, the device is in Download Mode, and LGUP is in Dev mode, and the required DLLs were placed in the proper paths, LGUP should open up and you should see the following:

Select Partition DL, BIN File, and select the kdz file downloaded from above.

Flash US99810d_01_0411.kdz

Once done, your phone will softlock, with a small dead Android Character on screen, As expected a boot loop. So…

#### Step 3 E) Master Reset — using buttons:

A. Unplug phone and turn it OFF.
B. Press and hold the Power and Volume down buttons.
C. When the LG logo appears, quickly release the Power button only — then immediately press Power button again, while STILL pressing the Volume down button until you see the screen to select Yes to erase and reset everything.
D. Release both buttons so you can make your choices.

*This took me a couple tries to get, once I got it showed a cool  animation and then phone booted.

Then go through the out of box experience (OOBE), and go and check the software version.

Look at that… from Android 9, back to Android 7, going back in time!

However Morty we went back too far in time, we need to get back to Android 8! Didn’t anyone tell you what happened to Android 8?!

### Step 4) Flash US99820a_04_0330.kdz

So the exact same steps we just did above, we have to do them again for US998 Oreo. Do it again.

Ooooo there it is US99820a… sweeet.

This time cause the device was unlocked there wasn’t even an OOBE, it went right into the main area…. time to enable dev options!! I couldn’t do this last time… sweeet!

### Step 5) Confirm you’re in developer mode.

If Settings doesn’t show Developer Options, go to Settings/About Phone/Software Info, click Build number 7 times.

Enable OEM Unlock, and USB Debugging.

Installing the ADB tools is nothing more then extracting to a path on your Windows machine. On this PC, copy the new_unlock.bin you downloaded into this directory “platform-tools”.

### Step 6) Connect to USB and switch to Photo Transfer Mode.

(If you’re a normal user, you probably default to USB. You need Photo.) A prompt will appear on your phone to ask you to accept this PC to be authorized for USB Debugging.

I didn’t get this prompt till I attempted to send commands and it reported the device was not authorized to do so…

### Step 7) Using ADB commands to set Fastboot.

Open a CMD prompt as an admin, inside that command window, run (type and hit enter):

adb devices

To ensure the device (and only the device) is listed. If it’s not listed, verify that Photo Transfer mode. Sometimes you will need to do this step again, to ensure it eventually shows your device.

Reboot phone into Fastboot mode:

adb reboot bootloader

You should hear the Windows sounds of USB devices going and coming. And the phone has an odd screen.

From the same directory (Android tools),

### Step 8) Using fastboot command to flash unlocker bin.

fastboot flash unlock new_unlock.bin

For me I was getting stuck with fastboot stating “waiting for devices”, I followed this stackoverflow suggestion, and found the Device was in Device Manager as a new device that Windows didn’t recognize. I checked online for software/driver updates, and it managed to install the device.

That was fast…. Sweeet That’s it! That’s how you unlock the bootloader on a LG v30 H933! Cheers!

In the next Blog post we will be covering installing TWRP! Stay Tuned!